The process involves soaking (water retting) or exposure to moisture (dew-, or field-, retting) using pectin enzymes naturally secreted by indigenous microflora. Natural flax colours range from shades of ivory, tan and grey. The production is concentrated in Bangladesh and some in India, mainly Bengal. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Example:Jute is associated with the process of Retting. Your email address will not be published. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. The process for this separation is called retting. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. Search. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. Indica is the variety grown for both recreational and medical drug use. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. The actual fibres are located between the epidermis, or bark surface, and an inner woody core. Hemp is the generic name for the entire cannabis family of plants. Dew retting tends to yield a dark-colored fiber. Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. The water‐retting process is initiated by aerobic bacteria; as the air in the rettery … It is mostly used in the furnishing textile industries, however due to its durability and advantageous properties it is also now being developed for high performance technical textiles. For more information on linen, go into the Linen-Bast category. India produces a variety of hemp known as Sunn or Bombay Hemp. 3.1 ~ Retting Hemp bast fiber must be separated from the woody core by mechanical means (decortication) or by the process of "retting" (rotting). Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. Hemp is non-toxic in use, renewable and non-polluting during its life cycle; it needs little if any pesticides, resisting decay and infestation naturally. In the mechanical process the woody stems are crushed and natural enzymes break down the stems so that the fibres can be combed out and spun, using similar methods to the production of flax. Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into strong threads. The principal consumers of Ramie fibre are Japan, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Retting permits separation of the fibre bundles, and individual fibres, from the vegetal skin and the woody core cells. With crop rotation it is not necessary to use chemical fertilisers and pesticides when growing flax. Jute fibres are composed of mainly cellulose but also lignin, which is a wood fibre. This requires 10-12 months of anaerobic (bacterial) fermentation. Coir (/ ˈ k ɔɪər /), or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the outer husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. In Canada the export of hemp seeds has increased by over 300% over the last two years. Water rettinginvolves leaving the stalks in tanks or ponds of water (or in a running river), and are acted upon by bacteria, rotting the stalk which separates the fibres from the woody core. • The fibres are then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed. Fibers are obtained from flax stems by the process of retting. Required fields are marked *. Kenaf fibers are shorter and coarser than those of jute. It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. It also greatly reduces rain run-off. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting i… Field retting is an industrial process for extracting valuable bast fibres from hemp. India is the largest grower. There are two types of ramie; China Grass which is also known as true ramie or white ramie and green ramie which are believed to have originated in Malaysia. Hemp fabric withstands water better than any other textile product. The fibres are then usually separated from the stalk by retting but are sometimes obtained by decortication which is a manual or mechanical peeling operation. Even when these are used flax requires only one fifth of the pesticides and artificial fertilisers that is required for commercially grown cotton. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Centre for Learning and Teaching in Art and Design, Bast fibres, like linen and flax are obtained from the, Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by, Linen, or flax is the most luxurious of all the bast fibres and has a very specific tactile appeal; it is smooth and lustrous to both the eye and hand, the fibre is almost silky in texture, yet embodies a springy freshness. It is an ecologically sustainable plant requiring far less water and no chemical pesticides or fertilisation. Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. It holds its shape well and does not wrinkle easily. Naturally Advanced Technologies Inc. (NAT), Vancouver, Canada, has granted licence to Tuscarora Yarns Inc. under which Tuscarora will design and manufacture specialty yarns containing blends of NAT's CRAILAR� Flax fibre with cotton or other fibres. Today the major producers are China and India. Bamboo also contains a substance called bamboo-kun, an antimicrobial agent that gives the plant a natural resistance to pest and fungi infestation. This step is … India produces a variety of hemp known as. Simply put, retting is a plant fibre-extraction process in which fibre-rich plants are made subject to decomposition via heavily exposing it to moisture which promotes microbial activity. Since the 1930s the focus has been the production of strains that offer a poor sources of drug material. The longest and more desirable flax fibres are from plants that have been hand harvested; this is the process of pulling the complete plant with root (fibres go all the way to the root) from the ground. Ramie has an excellent resistance to abrasion and a tensile strength three to five times stronger than cotton and twice as strong as flax, although it is brittle and will break if consistently folded in the same place. Hemp fibre can also be ‘cottonised’ by a process similar to that used for flax, it is however not easy to spin but does make for a very good blend when used together with cotton in a 50-50 ratio. Furthermore, it was reported that the conditions for bacterial growth and activities were found to be more consistent in water retting, which produced the uniform colonization of bacteria and resulted in better fiber quality (Nair et al. Up to the mid 1980s the old Soviet Union was the largest producer, much of it being cultivated in the Ukraine and the parts of Russia close to Poland. Bast fibres, like linen and flax are obtained from the phloem, or inner bark (or skin) of a plant. The fibre itself needs to be separated from the interior xylem or woody core and some times also from the epidermis which is the outer most layer of cells that carries nutrients to the leaves. to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. CC BY-NCIf you use this content on your site please link back to this page and credit accordingly. The fibres are naturally white and do not need to undergo any bleaching processes for either paper or cloth uses. Nettles can grow on the most inhospitable land that has been subjected to chemical abuse, but their cultivation uses a very small amount, if any at all of pesticide. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as, It is a more expensive fibre than cotton with much more of a niche market and therefore is an ideal vehicle for organic cultivation and ecological production methods. The penetration of water into the stems causes the detachment of the bast fibres, thus allowing the entry of retting bacteria, which demolish the fibre‐binding pectins (Donaghy et al. However, it wrinkles easily and should not be creased excessively to avoid wear and breakage of the fibers. It can be recycled several times within its lifecycle and also has important biodegradable properties. It grows best under traditional farming methods where the crops are rotated and fields are allowed to lay fallow; it also benefits from a longer lifespan. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre. Your email address will not be published. www.tlist-journal.org Textiles and Light Industrial Science and Technology (TLIST) Volume 2 Issue 4, October 2013 Study on Extraction of Bamboo Fibres from Raw Bamboo Fibres Bundles Using Different Retting Techniques Varinder Kaur1, D P Chattopadhyay2, Satindar Kaur3 1Department of Applied Chemical Sciences & Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 2Department of Textile … It is commonly used in regions of low water supply. The two varieties of jute are white jute corchorus capsularis or Indian jute and Tossa jute corchorus olitorius, which is Afro-Arabic jute. This type of fibre is known as bast fibre (nettles, hemp and jute are other examples of bast fibres). For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. It is grown in Ireland and Northern Europe; from Southern Normandy, France to Belgium and the Netherlands, which together produce 85% of the world’s flax. washed, air dried, and combed. These closely related bast fibers are derived from Hibiscus cannabinus and H. sabdariffa (mallow family, Malvaceae), respectively. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Retting of fibres is caused by [JIPMER 1987]A) BacillusB) ClostridiumC) NitrobacterD) Rhizobium. This restriction has hampered its use as a modern commercially viable raw material. DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. It also sustains many varieties of invertebrate species. When you ret flax, mould, warmth and humidity dissolve this ‘glue’ and loosen the fibre. Bamboo planting can slow deforestation, providing an alternative source of timber for the construction industry and cellulose fibre for the textile industry. The same manufacturing process is used to produce linen fabric from flax or hemp. Tossa jute is softer and silkier and more lustrous than white jute. It is second only to soy in its nutritional value, is highly digestible and an effective unsaturated oil. The United States is the only industrialised country where it is still illegal to grow hemp, although some states have granted licences for the cultivation of industrial hemp. Retting with bacterial inoculum for 5–6 days led to major changes Starting from the second day of retting, the fibre samples in the ultimate fibres: the fibrous wall texture became from the tanks inoculated with the two selected bacterial more prominent, suggesting a loss of matrix components strains clearly showed better properties than the corre- (Fig. It is a species of hibiscus with visual similarities to Jute. Along with flax, this fast-growing plant is now the basis for a new textile woven on conventional cotton-machinery, called CRAILAR� Organic Fibres. Due to its ease of cultivation, potential environmental benefits and extraordinary growth rate it is a cheap, sustainable and efficient crop. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. These include linseed oil for linoleum, soap, fuel and cattle feed. Tossa jute is also grown as a staple food and is now grown in India. Sativa which is commonly known as Industrial hemp and is the term given to the variety grown for fibre and other non drug related purposes. explained in more detail below, hemp fibres are classically separated from the plant stems by “water retting”, which in essence is a microbial process. This study for the first time revealed the coexistence … Hemp is an ecologically and sustainably important plant, running in tandem with ‘green future’ objectives and is often referred to as the World’s most useful plant. Therefore, it is imperative to develop ecofriendly methods for coir extraction from coconut husks. Nettles have the potential to be a viable alternative to cotton, and other textiles that are harmful to the environment. Flax is the only commercial cellulosic textile plant indigenous to Western Europe; it is also the strongest of all the vegetable fibres being two to three times stronger than cotton. The quality of the final linen yarn and fabric is dependent upon the growing conditions, harvesting methods and whether it is a short fibre known as tow or the more desirable long line fibre. The fibers are loosened in a few hours, but close control is required to prevent deterioration and damage to the fibres. It can be sun bleached to avoid the use of artificial agents. However, herbicide and fertilizer applications are common in some places to encourage edible shoot growth. Fibre retting Bacterial populations, especially that of Clostridium butyclicum, are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc, the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used to make ropes and sacks. Hemp is cultivated all over the world and was such an important crop that in the 19th century over 80% of the world’s fabric was made of hemp. 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